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January: 1. Bornemann, Robert. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1998. This is the foundation text for this course. We will systematically proceed through Part Two, "Continuing Biblical Hebrew" which involves translating 1 Kings 17-19 and reviewing key points of grammar and syntax as we plod along. We may also review some lessons in Part One. A major advantage of this text is that it is written in a personal dialogical way. 2. Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford, 1907; reprint, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1979. Even though this dictionary or lexicon was published around the beginning of this century, it still provides the most wealth of information per the expense. You will probably agree its format needs revising. We will enhance our skills to use BDB throughout the course. 3. Elliger, K., and W. Rudolph. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1967-77. This is the Hebrew Bible reproduced from the oldest complete manuscript of the Old Testament,Codex Leningradensis (ca. 1008 A.D.), without significant alteration. We will read it throughout the course gaining appropriate knowledge. 4. Mitchel, Larry A. A Student's Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984. Mitchel's book is arranged by frequency. He lists the word and definition(s) of some 2000 Hebrew words and all 648 biblical Aramaic words. We will be memorizing all the Hebrew words used 100 times or more. He groups nouns, verbs, and particles all together. 5. Scott, William R. A Simplified Guide to BHS. Berkley, CA: BIBAL, 1987. This is a basic introduction to many of the peculiarities of the Hebrew Bible. Scott provides an English key to the Latin text critical notes at the very bottom of the page which were added by scholars this century who edited BHS and to the Aramaic side marginal notes (a.k.a. "massorah") which were put there by Medieval Jewish rabbis who created the vowel and accent system of the Hebrew Bible. Scott also explains many other features of the Hebrew Bible that will help you to understand how it has been put together through hundreds of years. Page 3 6. Williams, Ronald J. Hebrew Syntax: An Outline. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1976. This book is a brief introduction to Hebrew syntax (how words are put together). We will utilize this book throughout the course. Williams is too brief at many points, but the alternative books pertaining to syntax are of massive proportion or too expensive. Williams uses many terms for syntax that are now outdated; nevertheless, his text continues to be useful for beginning Hebrew students.

Publication Date

January 2000


Asbury Theological Seminary


Hebrew, Spring, January, August, OT502



OT 502 Comprehensive Hebrew II