During the 1850s, infant mortality greatly increased in New York City and other large cities. One of the leading physicians to address this problem in New York City was Dr. David Meredith Reese, an active Methodist layman, who was also involved in many other issues of the day: phrenology, colonization, and Bible reading in the schools. In 1857, his Report on Infant Mortality in Large Cities was published in which he both examined its extent and sources and also suggested ways to reduce it. Strikingly, two of his recommendations for its reduction coincided with efforts already underway. For example, his call to restrict abortion, especially among upper-class married women, coincided with the campaign of the American Medical Association (hereafter, AMA) to lobby state legislatures for stricter laws against it. Again, his suggestion that New York City establish at least one foundling hospital for unwanted infants occurred at the same time that two municipal committees were also considering this possibility. Although Reese died in 1860 before any of his recommendations had been fully implemented, he still played a major role, along with other Manhattan physicians, in focusing the public’s attention on this problem.