This essay explores the role of biblical exegesis in the task of Christian theology and in the contemporary global mission of the church from the perspective of an Old Testament scholar. It poses the question what a biblical exegesis would look like that was consistently Christian in its assumptions while, at the same time, honest and competent in dealing with the phenomena of the biblical text. Using the exegesis of the early centuries of the church as a case study, the essay develops insights into the role of serious biblical study in empowering the early church's vibrant expansion through the entire known world, shaping its clarification of the essential tasks and content of Christian theology, by competently integrating both literal and spiritual dimensions of the Bible's meaning into a coherent process of biblical interpretation.